GEJALA ASCARIASIS PDF
Ascaris and clonorchis are the most prevalent and clinically important parasites infecting the biliary tract. Ascaris causes biliary tract symptoms because of. diperhatikan Gejala yang terjadi dapat disebabkan oleh: a. Migrasi larva b. Cacing dewasa Gejala ascariasis disebabkan oleh stadium larva dan dewasa. The main species that infect people are the roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the hookworms (Necator americanus and .
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Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Infection occurs by eating food or drink contaminated with Ascaris eggs from feces. Prevention is by improved sanitationwhich includes improving access to toilets and proper disposal of feces.
Ascariasis – Wikipedia
In populations where worm infections are wide-spread, it is common to find that most people are infected by a small number of worms, while a small number of people are heavily infected. This is characteristic of many types of worm infections.
As larval stages travel through the body, they may cause visceral damage, peritonitis and inflammationenlargement of the liver or spleenand an inflammation of the lungs. Pulmonary manifestations take place during larval migration and may present as Loeffler’s syndromea transient respiratory illness associated with blood eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltrates with radiographic shadowing.
The worms can occasionally cause intestinal blockage when large numbers get tangled into a bolus or they may migrate from the small intestine, which may require surgery. More than A. The worms had caused torsion and gangrene of the ileumwhich was interpreted as the cause of death.
However they can rarely cause bowel perforations by inducing volvulus and closed loop obstruction. Bowel obstruction may occur in up to 0. Occasionally, a worm can travel through the billiary tree and even into the gallbladdercausing acute cholangitis or acute cholecystitis.
Ascariasis may result in allergies to shrimp and dustmites due to the shared antigentropomyosin ; this has not been confirmed in the laboratory. The worms in the intestine may cause malabsorption and anorexia which contribute to malnutrition. Ascaris have an aversion to some general anesthetics and may exit the body, sometimes through the mouth, when an infected individual is put under general anesthesia. The source of infection is from objects which have been contaminated with fecal matter containing eggs.
Infectious eggs may occur on other objects such as hands, money and furniture. Transmission comes through municipal recycling of wastewater into crop fields.
This is quite common in emerging industrial economies and poses serious risks for local crop sales and exports of contaminated vegetables. A outbreak of ascariasis in Italy was traced to irresponsible wastewater recycling used to grow Balkan vegetable exports. The number of ova eggs in sewage or in crops that were irrigated with raw or partially treated sewage, is a measure of the degree of ascariasis incidence.
Ascaris egg, incubation process: This process ascarissis for evaluation of an egg to determine if it is viable or not, by watching the bipartition of the nucleus, and the growth of the larva. The first appearance of eggs in stools is 60—70 days. In larval ascariasis, symptoms occur 4—16 days after infection. The final symptoms are gastrointestinal discomfort, colic and vomiting, fever, and observation of live worms in stools.
Some patients may have pulmonary symptoms or neurological disorders during migration of the larvae. There are generally few or no symptoms. A bolus of worms may obstruct the intestine; migrating larvae may cause pneumonitis ascairasis eosinophilia.
Adult worms have a lifespan of 1—2 years which means that individuals may be infected all their lives as worms die and new worms are acquired. Eggs can survive potentially for 15 years and a single worm may produceeggs a day. Ascaris takes most of its nutrients from the partially digested host food in the intestine. There is some evidence that it can secrete anti-enzymes, presumably to protect itself asdariasis digestion by the hosts’ enzymes.
Children are often more severely affected. Most diagnoses are made by identifying the appearance of the worm or eggs in feces. Due to the large quantity of azcariasis laid, physicians can diagnose using only one or two fecal smears. The diagnosis is usually incidental when the host passes a worm in the stool or vomit.
The eggs can be seen in a smear of fresh feces examined on a glass slide under a microscope and there are ascaruasis techniques to concentrate them first or increase their visibility, such as the ether sedimentation method or the Kato technique. The eggs have a characteristic shape: During pulmonary disease, larvae may be found in fluids aspirated from the lungs.
White blood cells counts may demonstrate peripheral eosinophilia ; this is common in ascariasi parasitic infections and is not specific to ascariasis.
Prevention is by improved access to sanitation which includes the use of properly functioning and clean toilets by all community members as one important aspect. Medications that are used to kill roundworms are called ascaricides.
Those recommended by the World Health Organization for ascariasis are: Albendazole is contraindicated during pregnancy and children under two years of age. Thiabendazole may cause migration of the worm into the esophagusso it is usually combined with piperazine. Piperazine is a flaccid paralyzing agent that blocks the response of Ascaris muscle to acetylcholine, which immobilizes the worm.
It prevents migration when treatment is accomplished with weak drugs such as thiabendazole. If used by itself, it causes the worm to be passed out in the feces and may be used when worms have caused blockage of the intestine or the biliary duct.
Corticosteroids can treat some of the symptoms, such as inflammation. In some cases with severe infestation the worms may cause bowel obstructionrequiring emergency surgery.
It is rare for the infections to be life-threatening. Ascariasis is common in Africa and in Southeast Asia. It also occurs in the United States including Gulf Coast. As of Ascariasis caused about 2, directly attributable deaths, down from 3, in There are two animal models, the mouse and pig, used in studying Ascaris infection.
Infections in pigs leads to poor weight gain and thus financial losses for the farmer. A problem for young animals more than for mature ones, clinical signs include unthriftiness, potbelly, rough hair coat, and slow growth.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. This article is about the infection. For the organism, see Ascaris. Not to be confused with Acariasis a mite infection. Infectious Disorders Drug Targets. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 28 November The drugs we have and the drugs we need against major helminth infections. Infectious diseases of humans. Maternal and Child Nutrition.
Knowledge and Needs EUR. Elsevier Science Pub Co. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. Life history and development of Ascaris lumbricoides and the persistence of human ascariasis.
Ascariasis and its public health significance. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. Preventive Chemotherapy in Human Helminthiasis: Archived PDF from the original on Holt’s Diseases of Infancy and Childhood: A Textbook for the Use of Students and Practitioners.
The evolution of drug discovery: Prophylactic activity in a mouse-ascaris suum test model “. Archived from the original on 9 Vejala Retrieved 9 November Archived copy as title link.
Infectious diseases Parasitic disease: Fasciolopsis buski Fasciolopsiasis Metagonimus yokagawai Metagonimiasis Heterophyes heterophyes Heterophyiasis. Diphyllobothrium latum Diphyllobothriasis Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Sparganosis Diphyllobothrium mansonoides Sparganosis.
CDC – Ascariasis – Biology
Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloidiasis Trichostrongylus spp. Enterobius vermicularis Enterobiasis Pinworm. Biology portal Medicine portal. Retrieved from ” https: Helminthiases Foodborne illnesses Ascaridida Neglected diseases Tropical diseases Conditions diagnosed by stool test.