Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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The E-mail message field is required. The men who act for their respective states are likely to find the going easier if they have sympathy and understanding for their opposite numbers and for their peoples. By definition, the stage is pre- empted by a set of states, each in full control of all territory, men, and resources within its boundaries.

Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. Nations also face these differences in their milieu, although it is up to them to decide to what extent they wish to devote their resources to the benefits they may hope to derive from helping to preserve or improve conditions prevailing beyond their borders.

Others have pleaded instead for economic autarchy which, by eliminating the need for international economic intercourse altogether, would make economic demands on others unnecessary. The data should be sufficient to permit at least the refinement of crude common sense propositions and, as a consequence, an Im- provement of the intellectual climate In which policy is formulated. He combines brilliant theoretical reasoning with percep- tive commentary on American foreign policy.

Leading statesmen may give expression to hopes or ideals of their people, but these hopes do not, thereby, become what properly can be called policy goals. Presumably, this implies that decision-makers tend to conform to the demands of this cul- ture, of its values and taboos, whether or not they have internalized, them and made them part of their own individual predispositions.

This can be seen by imagining two extreme sets of conditions, both theoretically compatible with a multistate system, in which, as a consequence of the wide differences in the objectives pursued by the states in question as well as in the means they are willing to employ, the chances of peace would stand at opposite poles.

From the John Holmes Library Collection. However, these sciences have not rendered the intuition of the prac- ticing physician superfluous as anyone should realize who has relied on a doctor possessing profound scientific knowledge but devoid of the gift of empathy and comprehension for the individual patient.

It is customary to call this the realist school. The reactions of different Inhabitants might range all the way from hurried window-opening and loud complaints to com- plete indifference.

The minds-of-nien xiscord, while able to render important and indispensable services to a comprehensive theory of international politics, cannot do justice to all the essential events that fill the international arena. Collaboartion, as well as their opponents in the German school of Geopolitik, were aware of the advantage to be gained from accounting for all major moves in international politics in terms of the economic system or the geographic situation, respectively.

The change is hardly surprising since the environmentalist approach was suggesting that the psy- chology of particular decision-makers or of particular nations was of little consequence at a time when the world was confronted with an array of leaders from Churchill and Roosevelt to Hitler, Stalin, and lesser dictators whose imprint on the policy of their countries could not well be ignored or minimized and when the arena of world politics was beginning to include more and more nations that differed greatly in national character from Western countries.


Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books

The Soviet leaders themselves may not be able to distinguish between their national goals and their revolutionary or universalist goals because ever since Lenin declared Russia to be the “Fatherland of the Revolution” they have been able to claim, sometimes to the dismay of Communists abroad, that what was good for Russia–and only what was good for Russia–was good for Communism.

Actually, the states-as-actors theory postulates a limited number of such traits which, moreover, all states are assumed to have in common. Cancel Forgot your password? Signs point to the likelihood that the masses, who have gained greater influence as behind-the-scenes actors, will push for greater restraints upon the pursuit of those state interestssuch as national security or prestige that are seen to conflict with private welfare needs.

In the introduction to the book by him and Abraham Kaplan, Power and Society: It includes analogous events in other social fields and accessible to him by way of introspection comparable events within his own person, whether actual or imagined.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

The Actors in International Politics 7 One wonders riscord, for Instance, whether the bulk of the popula- tion in countries facing the risks of nuclear war will long continue to regard as vital, and thus worthy of defense in war, all the state interests they were once ready to place in this category.

Indirect national goals present a problem similar to the milieu goals.

On whatever level the inimical confrontation takes place, it is bound to have far-reaching conse- quences both for the nations directly involved and for the other members of the multistate system. Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers. It is one thing to learn from experiments that children are more likely to clean their teeth if promised rewards than if threatened with the painful consequences of neglecting their teeth, quite another to generalize about the re- spective chances of influencing dictators by threats of deprivation or promises of gratification.

Thus, since the days of Cobden, free-traders have argued that if governments ceased to interfere with commercial activities across borders the chief source of international conflict would be removed. In analyzing international politics, there would be no need to concern oneself with the problem of goals if nation-states were single-purpose organizations.

One must expect deviations from any general pattern discovered by means of deduction. Therefore, I call the first “direct national goals,” the second, “indirect national goals. Is it credible, they ask, that Egyptian fel- laheen and Pakistani peasants, desperately in need of food, shelter, and improved conditions of health, should, as their governments contend, yearn for the satisfaction of such “state interests” as the liquidation of Israel or the unification of Kashmir under Pakistani rule, when the pursuit of such interests requires great sacrifices of the masses?

Yet, if one considers the conditions of danger and opportunity, of fear and appetite that have to exist in order to produce anything approaching inexorable compulsion, one will see that the highly abstract model used by exponents of the states-as-actors theory can- not offer more than a first approximation to reality.

But while an altruistic act by an individual is likely to benefit the actor more if he is not conscious of serving his own interests too, usually when nations are involved suspicion of hypocrisy will be easily aroused; self-righteous claims of pure benevolence, by hurting the pride of others, will diminish the desirable effect of greater amity.


Under these circumstances, they may forfeit an immediate national gain for the sake of sustaining the rule of law with its long-run benefits.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) []

The United States, to give another example, has no assurance that a Yugoslav desire to restore solidar- ity with the Communist bloc might not at any moment gain the upper hand over the wish to maintain cordial relations with the United States.

There is an inclination, particularly in the United States, to exaggerate the importance of feelings of friendship or gratitude for the maintenance of amical relations. But these analogies are misleading.

Some form of regular and institutionalized political co- operation among nations retaining their power of ultimate decision perhaps after the model of the British Commonwealth may be Amity and Enmity Among Nations 29 able under certain circumstances to assure a high degree of amity among the participants without interfering in the proper function- ing of the national governments.

Share your thoughts with other customers. If the nation-states are seen as the sole actors, moving or moved like a set of chess figures in a highly abstract game, one may lose sight of the human beings for whom and by whom the game is supposed to be played.

Leading statesmen, too, may become blinded by their personal grudges against a particular nation or against a particular foreign statesman. If they ciscord be made to do so, they will contribute to the development of a theory that rightly can claim to be “realistic” since it will throw light on all chief aspects of the realities in contemporary international politics. Here, also, a decision-making analysis would be useful only in regard to individuals who decided to remain where they were rather than join the general and expected rush.

The second type of co-operative arrangement, which lines up nations for mutual assistance against a common external foe, faces fewer obstacles than the inward-directed type. Finding libraries that hold this item If this should ever occur if, for example, a Communist International could per- suade a state’s soldiers and workers to refuse obedience to their own arnopd government the nation-state in question would prove an empty shell when put to the test of war.

At the same time, Russians may find that their American counterparts demand the containment, if not elimina- tion, of Communist collaborahion, and a halt to Russian expansion before it reaches the Mediterranean or Persian Gulf and endangers Amer- ican security. Were one to believe that geography dictated Napoleon’s and later Hitler’s in- vasion of Russia, one would have to ascribe to geography a vicious design to fool and defeat ambitious conquerors! When this happens these leaders place their states in the service of the transnational cause of abolishing Western colonial rule everywhere.

The international milieu, the clash of interests and demands among nation-states, or the injustices suffered by nations are not given any attention.